Naturism 205 Support Bibliography

Naturism 205 Support Bibliography

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Home » 205 Arguments and Observations In Support of Naturism

Bibliography

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---. World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts. Oshkosh: N Editions, 1995.
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Easton, Burton Scott, ed. The Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus. N.p.:n.p. 1962.
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Edelsward, L.M. "We Are More Open When We Are Naked." Ethnos 56.3-4 (1991): 189-199.
Ellis, Havelock. Studies in the Psychology of Sex. New York: Random House, 1936.
Fahringer, Herald Price. "Equality in All Things: Drawing the Line on Nudity." Criminal Law Bulletin 29.2 (March-
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"Famed Nudist Richter's Personal Legacy Lost in Quake." Nude & Natural 13.4 (1994): 6.
Fardell, G.R. "Brazil." Nude & Natural 11.2 (1992): 37-40.
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Fisher, Seymour. "Body Decoration and Camouflage." Dimensions of Dress and Adornment: A Book of Readings.
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---. The Psychology of Clothes. London: Hogarth, 1930.
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Ford, Darlene Ora Stanridge. "Fashion Indicators of Women's Social Status." Diss. Texas Women's University,
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"France." Clothed with the Sun 4.1 (1984): 51-54.
"France's Naturist Tourism Booms." Clothed with the Sun 5.4 (1986): 61.
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Franklin, Deborah. "Vanities: Femininity's Seamy Underside." Health [San Francisco] October, 1992: 24-30.
Freudenthal, Anita R. and Paul R. Joseph. "Seabather's Eruption." New England Journal of Medicine 329.8 (19
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"From Dermatology Research for Sunbathers." Clothed with the Sun 7.4 (1988): 10-11.
Fussell, Paul. "Taking It All Off in the Balkans." Thank Go d for the Atom Bomb and Other Essays. New York:
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"Gallup Asks Married People: 'Do You Swim in the Nude?'" Nude & Natural 10.1 (1990): 5.
"Gallup Poll." Clothed with the Sun 3.2 (1983): 4.
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Griffith, Susan. Pornography and Silence: Culture's Revenge Against Nature. New York: Harper, 1981.
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Gurel, Lois M. "The Function of Dress." Dimensions of Dress and Adornment: A Book of Readings. 3rd ed. Eds.
Lois M. Gurel and Marianne S. Beeson. Dubuque, IA: Hendall/Hunt, 1979. 3-7.
Hall, Edward T. Beyond Culture. Garden City, NY: Anchor, 1976.
Harding, Walter. A Thoreau Handbook. [New York]: New York UP, 1959.
Harker, George R. "Nude Bathing, No Controversy." Parks & Recreation 22.8 (August, 1987): 58-61.
Hartman, William E., Marilyn Fithian, and Donald Johnson. Nudist Society: An Authoritative Complete Study of
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Hennepin, Louis. A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America. Ed. Reuben Gold Thwaites. Chicago: A.C.
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Herold, Edward, Bruna Corbesi, and John Collins. "Psychosocial Aspects of Female Topless Behavior on Australian
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Hill, Terry L. "Dressed to Kill: Do Bras Trigger Breast Cancer?" Review of Dressed to Kill: The Link between
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Hochschild, Adam. "Reporting on the Naked Truth." Mother Jones August, 1981: 6.
Hoffman, Nicky. "Surveying Body Acceptance." Nude & Natural 15.2 (1995): 33-38.
Hogan, Richard M. and John M. LeVoir. Covenant of Love: Pope John Paul II on Sexuality, Marriage, and Family
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Holliday, Robert Cortes. Unmentionables, from Figleaves to Scanties. New York: R. Long & R.R. Smith, 1933.
The Holy Bible, King James Version.
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Horn, Marilyn J. The Second Skin: An Interdisciplinary Study of Clothing. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1968.
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Ilfeld, Fred, Jr., and Roger Lauer. Social Nudism in America. New Haven, CT: College and University P, 1964.
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Charles F. Westoff, and Deirdre Wulf. Teenage Pregnancy in Industrialized Countries. New Haven: Yale
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Kellam, Richard B., and Teri Scott Lovelace. "To Bare or Not to Bare: The Constitutionality of Local Ordinances
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Kilmer, Hugh. "Drawing People Whole." Clothed with the Sun 7.2 (1987): 104-109.
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Lacey, Marc, and Ken Ellingwood. "Court Refuses to Let Sunbathers Bare It All." Los Angeles Times 20 April
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Langner, Lawrence. The Importance of Wearing Clothes. Los Angeles: Elysium Growth, 1991.
Laver, James. Modesty in Dress: An Inquiry into the Fundamentals of Fashion. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1969.
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Lewis, Robin J. and Louis H. Janda. "The Relationship between Adult Sexual Adjustment and Childhood
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"Losses on Germany's 'Nude Coast'." Nude & Natural 11.4 (1992): 32-35.
Lyall, Sarah. "Going Topless Is Not Necessarily Against the Law, New York Court of Appeals Rules." New York
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Mackenzie, Don. "Eve Was Framed." Nude & Natural 11.1 (1991): 18-25.
Mackey, J.A. "Nudity and the Bible: It's Approved." Nude & Natural 11.1 (1991): 39-43.
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Wyner, T.A. "Prosecuting Nudity: The Old Ways Collapse." Nude & Natural 11.2 (1992): 66-68.
Yancey, Philip. "Not Naked Enough." Christianity Today 34.3 (19 February 1990): 48.
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1 . Rudofsky, Unfashionable Human Body 69.

2 . Kearney 39.

3 . D. Smith 92.

4 . See, for example, Steele 45, and L. Smith.

5 . Story, "Comparisons of Body Self-Concept" 99-112; Story, "Comparison Studies" 77. Studies show that 53% of high school girls are unhappy with their bodies at age 13. By age 18, 78% are unhappy (Glazer 115). See also Brody 96, 135-37.

6 . See Blank et al.

7 . See DeGoede. See also related research in Herold et al. 138.

8 . For supporting research, see Story, "Comparisons of Body Self-Concept."

9 . North American Guide 12-14.

10 . See Hartman et al; Weinberg, "Becoming a Nudist" 245-46; Ilfeld and Lauer 167-70. For two typical personal accounts, and an excellent analysis, see Westheimer and Lieberman 59-60.

11 . Woody 15-16. Dr. Woody also proposes, in very general terms, a means of overcoming clothes-compulsiveness. See pp. 16-17.

12 . See Hartman et al.; Ableman 92.

13 . Ableman 92.

14 . Palmer 125; Seager and Olsen 80 [chart 35]; Schloss 49.

15 . "Women Looking at Women" 13.

16 . Fussell 211.

17 . Jan Smith 77, quoting from Male and Female by Margaret Mead.

18 . Ellis, vol. 1, part 1, pp. 19, 56; Laver, Modesty in Dress 9, and "What Will Fashion Uncover Next?" 160; Warren 163.

19 . John Paul II 186, 189, 190.

20 . See Hall, esp. 192-93; Laver, Modesty in Dress 9.

21 . For a detailed discussion of this concept, see Laver, Modesty in Dress 9-11, et al. See also Weinberg, "Embarrassment."

22 . D. Smith 107; Horn 61; Laver, Modesty in Dress 10.

23 . See also Flügel, Man, Morals and Society 138-39; Rudofsky, Unfashionable Human Body 26; Robinson, Body Packaging 94-95.

24 . See Weinberg, "Nudist Management;" Weinberg, "Sexual Modesty" 314-18; H. Smith 229. The same principle is true in other clothing-optional contexts as well, such as the Finnish sauna (Edelsward 195) or topfree beach (Herold et al. 134).

25 . Weinberg, "Nudist Management" 375-403; and Weinberg, "Sexual Modesty" 314-18. For a more colloquial description of this phenomenon, see Fussell 212. See also H. Smith 229; and Laver, Modesty in Dress 9.

26 . See "The Origin of Modesty" in Ellis, vol. 1, part 1, pp. 8-27, for a thorough survey of indigenous peoples and their clothing or lack thereof. See also D. Smith 105; Ableman 14-21; Robinson, Body Packaging, 17-19, 26, 95-99, 150; Polhemus and Procter 44-45; Laver, Modesty in Dress 4-5; et al.

27 . Ableman 20.

28 . See Ricciardi. See also Ellis vol. 1, part 1, pp. 12-13.

29 . Ellis vol. 1, part 1, pp. 9-10.

30 . Lewis 2: 528-29 (January 21, 1806). See also pp. 472-73 (November 7, 1806); Thwaites 4:185-87; LeValley, "American Indian" 35.

31 . The Indians of California were recorded living nude in 1816, by Ludovik Choris, a Russian painter. See LeValley, "American Indian" 35.

32 . Hennepin 168. See also pp. 228, 483, 493, 653, 665; and LeValley, "American Indian" 33-37.

33 . The customs of native dress in Florida were recorded by the French artist and map maker Jacques le Moyne, who spent a year at a Huguenot colony from 1564 to 1565. See LeValley, "American Indian" 34.

34 . Sale 96; Cummins 94; et al. See also Sale 98, 177, and "Conquest of Paradise" 19-21. From their nakedness, Columbus inferred the native people to be an inferior race. However, as Kirkpatrick Sale notes, "the Tainos were not nearly so backward as Colón assumed from their lack of dress. (It might be said that it was the Europeans, who generally kept clothed head to foot during the day despite temperatures regularly in the eighties, who were the more unsophisticated in garmenture--especially since the Tainos, as Colón later noted, also used their body paint to prevent sunburn.) Indeed, they had achieved a means of living in a balanced and fruitful harmony with their natural surroundings that any society might well have envied." Columbus, however, noted that "they could easily be commanded and made to work, to sow and to do whatever might be needed, to build towns and be taught to wear clothes and adopt our ways." (Cummins 142, 12 December 1942; Sale 112) Although Columbus also wrote that "they are the best people in the world and above all the gentlest," his record of the first encounter between Europeans and New World Indians was filled with accounts of enslavement, murder, and rape (Sale 99, 140).

35 . Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 60; Donald D. Kololani Mitchell, Resource Units in Hawaiian Culture, 1982, quoted in "Secret Hawaii" 51, 64.

36 . Ableman 20-21.

37 . Rudofsky, Unfashionable Human Body 74. See also p. 24; and John Paul II 186, 189, 190.

38 . Robinson, Body Packaging 99-100.

39 . Nansen 58.

40 . Flügel, Psychology of Clothes 17.

41 . For details, see Ableman 25-31, and Hurlock 13-44.

42 . See, for example, Rudofsky, Unfashionable Human Body 27; Ableman 20.

43 . See Robinson, Body Packaging 31.

44 . The nude human form has extraordinary symbolic power, both in art and in communication. For an outstanding discussion of the significance of the artistic nude in American culture, see Ableman 48-61.

45 . Greeley 74, 83, 105, 108-09.

46 . Story, "Comparison of Social Nudists." See also Hartman et al.

47 . See Jones et al., esp. 11, 18, 223, 229; "Look & Function" 5; "Nude Beaches Help" 5.

48 . Baxandall, "Jock Sturges" 96.

49 . Cunnington 23.

50 . See, for example, Ableman 85-86; Laver, Modesty in Dress 12; Renbourn 512.

51 . Robinson, Body Packaging 32. See also Flügel, Psychology of Clothing 192-93.

52 . See, for example, Glynn; Ableman 32-33; Flügel, Psychology of Clothes 25-26.

53 . Finch 340-45.

54 . Laver, Modesty in Dress 12.

55 . Boyte, "Nude Attitude" 28.

56 . Ellis vol. 2, part 3, p. 97.

57 . Robinson, Body Packaging 67.

58 . See Robinson, Body Packaging; et al.

59 . Flügel, Psychology of Clothes 201.

60 . See for example Robinson, Body Packaging, esp. 19, 24-27, 50-51, 67; Flügel, Psychology of Clothes 25-27, 192; Ellis, vol. 1, part 1, pp. 58-62; Cunnington 50-51; and Laver, Modesty in Dress 36-37.

61 . Hollander 643, 644. See also Sisk 898.

62 . Robinson, Body Packaging 31.

63 . Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 13.

64 . See Robinson, Body Packaging 31; et al.

65 . Glazer 130, 135.

66 . The exposure of breasts is referred to as "topfree" rather than "topless" for two reasons. First, "topfree" is more accurate and puts the emphasis where it belongs, on the freedom of the breasts rather than the absence of clothing. Second, the term "topfree" emphasizes the distinction between the healthy nudity of comfort and convenience, and the fetishized nudity of "topless" bars.

67 . Hill 42.

68 . For an excellent exploration of the distinction between nudity and pornography, see Nead. Pope John Paul II has also made this distinction. He writes: "Pornography is a marked tendency to accentuate the sexual element when reproducing the human body or human love in a work of art, with the object of inducing the reader or viewer to believe that sexual values are the only real values of the person." (John Paul II 192) See also "Spirituality" 82; Hogan and LeVoir 52.

69 . See, for example, Griffith; et al.

70 . Condra 133.

71 . Ableman 102. See also pp. 102-04; research by Wilhelm Reich.

72 . Quoted in Flügel, Psychology of Clothes 235-36.

73 . M. Siegel 12; North American Guide 23. Numerous other benefits have also been attributed to sunlight, including improved cardiovascular health, reduced blood pressure, strengthened muscular development, increased tolerance to stress, relieved depression and arthritis, and reduced infertility in men. See Schrader 98; Mikat 37.

74 . Ray 41-42. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are linked to excessive ultraviolet exposure, but malignant melanoma shows no such correlation. In fact, studies have found melanoma to be considerably more common in indoor workers than outdoor workers, and more common on parts of the body with relatively low cumulative sun exposure. See "From Dermatology Research" 10.

75 . See research by Dr. James Prescott and others, reported in Hooper 1-2; Maxwell-Hudson 6; et al.

76 . Mead 137.

77 . For details, see Feder 475; Reynolds 12; Freudenthal and Joseph 544.

78 . For an excellent summary, see Liggett.

79 . D. Franklin 24-27.

80 . See McDonnell 184.

81 . Fussell 210.

82 . Quoted in Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 19. For further details and discussion of naturist philosophy, see pp. 12-19; "Who Are the Naturists" 22-23; Skinner 30; and, in general, the publications of The Naturist Society. The American Association for Nude Recreation also promotes nudism, though with less of an emphasis on comprehensive lifestyle. See, for example, North American Guide 9-29.

83 . North American Guide 13.

84 . Edelsward 194-95, 198.

85 . See, for example, DeGoede; Story, "Comparisons of Body Self-Concept" 99-112; and Story, "Comparison Studies" 77.

86 . D. Smith 174; Hartman et. al.; Weinberg, "Nudist Camp;" H. Smith. One of the few defining demo graphic characteristics of nudists is that, as a group, they tend to be better educated than non-nudists. See Ilfeld and Lauer.

87 . For an excellent analysis of the differences between "white" and "native" nudity, see Seabrook 22-23. For a case study of the eroticization of indigenous nudity by British colonialists in Africa, see Corbey.

88 . Boyte, "National Geographic" 24. Photos of visitors to Camp Koversada naturist resort in Yugoslavia in the August 1990 issue, and Wreck Beach, Vancouver in the April 1992 issue, show caucasian nudists, but from behind.

89 . Seabrook 22-23.

90 . For a thorough treatment of this subject, see D. Smith; Westheimer and Lieberman 65-73; and Okami 55-56, 60.

91 . Story, "Factors" 49-56.

92 . Lewis and Janda 349-62.

93 . See doctoral research by Booth.

94 . See doctoral research by Wilson.

95 . Westheimer and Lieberman 72.

96 . Unfortunately, a 1994 study by R.M. Dawes found that most clinicians keep themselves up to date not by academic research, but by workshops, conferences, and "clinical intuition." (Okami 54)

97 . Okami 55, 60.

98 . Gardener 99-100.

99 . For example, practically every extended family in Finland uses the sauna in the nude together on a regular basis (Edelsward 196). Anthropological data, in fact, show parental nudity to be "very common (if not ubiquitous) crossculturally."
See Okami 54.

100 . Ableman 43.

101 . See Jones et al., esp. 11, 18, 223, 229.

102 . "Look & Function" 5; "Nude Beaches Help" 5.

103 . References to the extensive benefits of breast-feeding are numerous. See for example Gaskin (esp. pp. 8-16); Palmer; J. Easton 53; Genz 52-53; "Topfree At Last" 46; Hill 42; et al. In developing countries, use of breast milk substitutes or mixed feeding is associated with a four to sixteen-fold increased risk of dying from diarrheal disease compared to an infant who is exclusively breast-fed. Even in the developed world, incidence of diarrhea and respiratory infection are reduced to one-third in babies exclusively breast-fed. Breast milk, especially immediately after birth, contains important antibodies against disease, is highly nutritious and high in calories, and helps clear the baby's intestinal tract. It is ideally suited to the baby's metabolic and developmental needs, especially brain development, and is easy to digest. Breast-fed babies suffer less from gas, constipation, diarrhea, and intestinal infections, and are more resistant to colds, respiratory diseases, allergies, and many viruses. Formula milk, by contrast, is more difficult for the child to digest, causing increased stress on its digestive and excretory systems, and is a common source of allergic reaction. For the mother, breast-feeding encourages uterine contractions which help restore post-pregnancy muscle tone and prevent hemorrhaging, and has been associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer and other diseases. Breast-feeding also encourages psychological bonding between the parent and child. It is in many ways more convenient than bottle feeding: breast milk is always ready, at the right temperature, with no spoilage, no waste, no fuss with complicated equipment and procedures, no trouble with improper mixing, and no risk of contamination by external debris, a factor which is especially important in developing countries where water supplies are often unreliable. There is no contribution to another major industry with its accompanying environmental impacts. And breast-feeding is cheaper than bottle feeding. Health officials estimate that $25 million could be saved every year in welfare costs by more breast-feeding--which led the Miami Herald to comment: "Heck, that's enough to buy blinders for every Floridian offended by the sight of a mother nursing her baby in public." ("Florida Solons Exempt Nursing Mothers" 20)

104 . Genz 52.

105 . See Gaskin 170; Palmer 6; et al. In all, four billion dollars worth of baby formula is sold each year.

106 . Palmer 95.

107 . Glazer 138.

108 . "Florida Solons Exempt Nursing Mothers" 20.

109 . Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 13. See also research by Ford.

110 . Marilyn Frye, The Politics of Reality, quoted in Craft 70.

111 . See Condra 129-34 for a detailed discussion of this phenomenon. For two excellent summaries of the arguments for topfree equality, see Craft, and Grueneich.

112 . Glazer 115.

113 . Fahringer 140-41.

114 . Grueneich 26.

115 . Glazer 116, 135; see also pp. 117, 136, 139.

116 . See Craft 71.

117 . Muschamp 321.

118 . For an especially thorough treatment of this subject, see Ribeiro.

119 . United States, Women's Historic Park; quote from Rudofsky, Are Clothes Modern? 103. See also Ellis vol. 1, part 3, p. 172; Taylor 82; Ableman 29. Robert Holliday notes that, ironically, the elimination of the corset from fashion did not come about through the actions of the dress reformers: "What brought about the corset's disappearance was the necessity of conserving steel for armaments. One Mrs. Nicholas Longworth is credited with having decided that corsets were non-essential for her fellow women. Subsequently, a member of the War Industries Board revealed that the American women's sacrifice released 28,000 tons of steel during World War I, enough to build two battleships." (Holliday 265-66)

120 . Palmer 124-25.

121 . See, for example, Fussell 214-16.

122 . "Nature" 5.

123 . See, for example, Southall.

124 . Ableman 21.

125 . Ilfeld and Lauer 181.

126 . Langner 90.

127 . Quoted in Kilmer, "Drawing People Whole" 108.

128 . Bahr 44. See also Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 12.

129 . Seabrook 22-23.

130 . Carey 78.

131 . It is interesting to note that while R-rated movies are prohibited from showing full-frontal male nudity, fullfrontal female nudity is perfectly acceptable--as long as there is no male in the frame with her.

132 . Hoffman 35.

133 . See Fahringer 144; Glazer 130.

134 . Wildman et al. 485; Fahringer 144.

135 . Ford and Beach 47.

136 . Robinson, "Introduction" xiii.

137 . For an excellent discussion of the changing views about nudity in fashion (and art) over the course of history, see Hollander. Laver (Modesty in Dress 38-39) presents an excellent, brief summary of the different concepts of modesty in fashion throughout history.

138 . For details, see Agate 75, et al.

139 . Allen 18-19. For a brief history of the censorship of nudity in art, see Noble.

140 . Warren 163-64.

141 . See Robinson, Body Packaging 65-67; Ribeiro 117; Shields 291; et al.

142 . Gurel 4.

143 . Ribeiro 52, 80-82; Laver, "What Will Fashion Uncover Next?" 160, and Modesty in Dress 9. For a brief history of the exposure and censure of breasts in fashion, see Ribeiro, and Shields 289-91.

144 . For details on the tolerance of nudity in countries worldwide, see Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts.

145 . "Body Acceptance in France" 10.

146 . "France" 51.

147 . Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 198-99; 232. See also North American Guide 21.

148 . "West Germany" 47; "Germans Say" 6.

149 . "Greece" 56.

150 . "Portugal" 57.

151 . Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 178; "Topfree, Bottomfree" 19.

152 . Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 230.

153 . Noted by the July 14, 1993 edition of the Bucharest paper Evenimentul Zilei, reported in "Romanians Pass Up Swimsuits."

154 . Edelsward 192, 196. For more details about Finnish sauna customs, see Baxandall, "The Communal Heat Bath."

155 . 1987 International Naturist Federation statistics, reported in "Counting Naked Noses & Toeses" 8.

156 . Survey conducted by the weekly La Point; reported in "One in Ten French."

157 . "France's Naturist Tourism" 61.

158 . North American Guide 22. For an excellent description of naturism in pre-war Yugoslavia, see Fussell 205- 220.

159 . Zalubowski 61, 63.

160 . The American bias against nudity is so pervasive--and so different from the rest of the world--that Club Med even produces special, censored brochures for Americans! See "Prudishness" 41.

161 . Fardell 40.

162 . "Gallup Poll" 4; D. Smith 139; O'Brien, "The Naked Truth" 46. A 1992 Gallup poll found that 58% of Americans would support legalization of topfree sunbathing on designated beaches (Saad and Hugick 37).

163 . "Polls Show" 3; D. Smith 139; O'Brien, "The Naked Truth" 46; Coleman and Rees 138. The Roper poll found that 28% of "liberals" and 15% of "conservatives" say they've gone skinnydipping.

164 . Greeley 176-77, 80. A 1990 Gallup poll concurred, finding that, overall, 19% of married couples sometimes "swim in the nude together." ("Gallup Asks" 5)

165 . "35% of Americans" 5.

166 . Wallace 108-09.

167 . Dunn and Kearney 100-01.

168 . Williams 88-90. See also D. Smith 25, 150.

169 . "The Un-Olympics" 6.

170 . Goldberger 1, 6. (The "American Association for Nude Recreation" was formerly known as the "American Sunbathing Association.")

171 . Coleman and Rees 138.

172 . "Losses on Germany's Nude Coast" 34-35.

173 . S. Mason 20.

174 . R. Mason 19, quoting from the September 7, 1995 edition of the Ft. Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel.

175 . "Tourism's Fastest Growth Sector" 5, quoting from Fodor's "Europe 1988" edition.

176 . Coleman and Rees 138.

177 . For an excellent summary of constitutional law as it applies to naturism, see R. Smith.

178 . In Kolender v. Lawson, 461 U.S. 352 (1983).

179 . In Papachristou v. City of Jacksonville, 405 U.S. 156 (1972). Justice Douglas was referring specifically to the Ninth Amendment.

180 . In Justice Douglas's concurring opinion on Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).

181 . See Lacey and Ellington.

182 . Williams v. Kleppe, 539 F.2d 803 (1976); Williams v. Hathaway, 400 F.Supp. 122 (Mass., 1975). In this particular case, the nudists lost to conservation interests at Cape Cod National Seashore. See R. Smith 36-37.

183 . Barnes v. Glen Theatre, 111 S.Ct. 2456 (1991)--a decision which has been almost universally criticized. See Kozlowski, Condra 141-47, Kellam and Lovelace 599-620.

184 . See R. Smith 35-36.

185 . South Florida Free Beaches v. City of Miami, 734 F.2d 608 (1984); People v. Hollman, 500 N.E.2d 297 (N.Y. 1986); Chapin v. Town of Southampton, 457 F.Supp. 1170 (1978); Williams v. Kleppe, 400 F.Supp. 122 (1975); Schad v. Borough of Mt. Ephraim, 452 U.S. 61 (1981); Function Junction v. City of Daytona Beach, 705 F.Supp. 544 (1987); International Food & Beverage Systems v. City of Fort Lauderdale, 794 F.2d 1520 (1986); et al. For example, State v. Baysinger, 397 N.E.2d 580, 587 (1979) held that "it may be constitutionally required to tolerate or to allow some nudity as a part of some larger form of expression meriting protection, when the communication of ideas is involved."

186 . South Florida Free Beaches v. City of Miami, 734 F.2d 608 (1984); Chapin v. Town of Southampton, 457 F.Supp. 1170 (1978); Williams v. Kleppe, 539 F.2d 803 (1976); Craft v. Hodel, 683 F.Supp. 289 (1988); McGuire v. State, 489 So.2d 729 (1986); et al. See Condra 141-47.

187 . "There is little in [nude swimmers'] conduct that merits First Amendment protection. While there may be an element of nonverbal expression inherent in nude bathing, its communicative character is less perceptive than [display of a flag or an armband in political protests]." Williams v. Hathaway, 400 F.Supp. 122 (Mass., 1975). See R. Smith 36.

188 . See Ableman 48-61, et al.

189 . Baxandall, "To Overturn" 55.

190 . See Kellam and Lovelace 606, 612-13.

191 . "The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people."

192 . Mackenzie 21-24.

193 . For two excellent summaries of the arguments for topfree equality, see Craft, and Grueneich.

194 . People v. Santorelli, 80 N.Y.2d 875 (1992); Lyall B5; "Big Achievements" 5; et al. See also "Men's, Women's Breasts Legally the Same" 3; Glazer 128; People v. David, 585 N.Y.S.2d 149 (1991); People v. Price, 33 N.Y.2d 831 (1973); Fahringer 138-40.

195 . Theoretically, in 48 states--all but Indiana and, as of 1994, Michigan--"a woman can go to the beach and remove her blouse in the same way a man can, and not be criminally prosecuted." See Fahringer, 141-43. Twentytwo states (Alaska, California, Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, and Wisconsin) specifically confine their statutory public exposure prohibitions solely to uncovered genitalia. Statutes in Louisiana, Arkansas, Arizona, Delaware, Mississippi, and Wyoming prohibit exposure of the breasts only where there is intent to arouse sexual desire, recklessness, or intent to cause affront or alarm. Statutes in Alabama, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia, and Washington prohibit acts that are done with recklessness or intent for their obscene or alarming nature, and North Carolina, Florida, and West Virginia's statutes are ambiguous with regard to exposure of the breasts. However, legal precedent nationwide interprets such exposure laws to exclude breasts. Until New York's law restricting exposure of the breasts was ruled unconstitutional in 1992, it and Indiana were the only states to specifically outlaw exposure of the breasts per se. See People v. Santorelli, 80 N.Y.2d 875 (1992); State v. Jetter, 599 N.E.2d 733 (Ohio, 1991); People v. David, 585 N.Y.S.2d 149 (1991); State v. Parenteau, 564 N.E.2d 505 (Ohio, 1990); State v. Crenshaw, 597 P.2d 13 (Hawaii, 1979); State v. Jones, 171 S.E.2d 468 (North Carolina, 1970); et al. Note that local ordinances prohibiting the exposure of breasts may supersede state laws. Such ordinances have been upheld in federal courts. See, for example, City of Seattle v. Buchanan (584 P.2d 918, Wash. 1978). There is also a repressive wind blowing in this nation. New laws are being proposed all over the country, often passing quietly and without review. Michigan, for example, in 1994 passed a bill permitting counties and localities to enact laws prohibiting mere nudity, and criminalizing the exposure of female breasts except for breast-feeding (Percey 14). (Breast-feeding, incidentally, has enjoyed new legal support, with progressive new laws in New York and Florida which have made it illegal to interfere with a breast-feeding mother, even if her breast is exposed. See Shields 291; "Breast-feeding Mothers" B6.)

196 . Legal questions about nudity are hotly debated in current politics, especially as part of the conservative agendas of groups like the so-called "Christian Coalition." Most legal challenges mistakenly seek to restrict all nudity in an attempt to censure pornography, especially topless bars. Naturist advocacy organizations, such as the Naturist Action Committee, have been working hard with limited resources to combat these legal challenges. Current updates on legal issues may be found in The Naturist Society's Nude & Natural magazine, and in the "Naturist Action Committee Newsletter." In any case, the specific details regarding legal tolerance of nudity are constantly changing. The wise naturist should check current conditions before venturing out in the buff.

197 . Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan, 458 U.S. 718, 725; People v. Santorelli, 80 N.Y.2d 875 (1992). See also Glazer 128; Fahringer 138-40.

198 . Glazer 117. See also Agate 75-76.

199 . See Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 30; Wyner 68; Semple 11; In re Chad Merrill Smith, 497 P.2d 807 (Ca., 1972); Goodmakers v. State, 450 So.2d 888 (Fla.); Duvallon v. State, 404 So.2d 196 (1981); Felton v. City of Pensacola, 390 U.S. 340 (Fla., 1967); People v. Gilbert, 338 N.Y.S.2d 457 (1972); People v. Hardy, 357 N.Y.S.2d 970 (1974); People v. Ventrice, 408 N.Y.S.2d 990; Bruns v. Pomerleau, 319 F. Supp. 58, 67 (Md., 1970); House v. Commonwealth, 169 S.E.2d 572 (Va., 1969); United States v. Central Magazine Sales, 281 F.2d 821 (1967); et al.

200 . "Well-Defined Buttocks" 32; O'Brien, "The Florida Puzzle" 30.

201 . Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 15-16. See also Naturist Action Committee 26.

202 . "National Park Service" 46, quoting from the April 1986 issue of the National Park Service journal Courier.

203 . Note that while the vast majority of federal areas are legally open to judicious nude use, a few have special management guidelines prohibiting nudity; and in recent years a few others have fallen under new "concurrent jurisdiction" guidelines, which require them to enforce anti-nudity state or county ordinances.

204 . "Gallup Poll" 4.

205 . Moore 10, 20-22.

206 . O'Brien, "The Naked Truth" 46.

207 . Officially recognized nude beaches are common in Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Jamaica, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Scotland, Russia, and Cuba; but the U.S. casts its lot with China, Iran, Iraq, Mexico, and much of Central and South America in condemning nude recreation (O'Brien, "The Naked Truth" 46).

208 . Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 194.

209 . "Losses on Germany's Nude Coast" 33-35.

210 . "The Ostsee Beaches" 34.

211 . For a thorough review of the perceptions of nudity throughout history, see Ribeiro.

212 . There is some debate about when nudity became commonplace among men in ancient Greek society. Myles McDonnell points out that "Bronze Age archaeology [specifically, Minoan era artwork] and the Homeric poems make it fairly certain that athletic nudity was not practiced before the late 8th century [B.C.]." However, nudity seems to have been commonplace among male athletes by the mid 6th century B.C., a fact supported both by vase artistry and the writings of Thucydides and Plato. McDonnell concludes, "whatever its origin, it seems that nude exercising was generally practiced by the mid sixth century [B.C.] at Athens and probably earlie r in sports and at the Olympic games." (McDonnell 182, 184, 193) Women were not naked in public in Athens; however, Spartan women participated nude in some rituals and athletic events, and in certain circumstances had the freedom of partial nudity in their social dress. See Bonfante, "The Naked Greek," 30-33, and "Nudity as a Costume," 554, 559;
Ribeiro 20; Renbourn 13.

213 . Bonfante, "Nudity as a Costume" 546-47, 551-58; Wilkinson 85-96; McDonnell 193; Warren 161.

214 . Miles 34.

215 . The famous Ravenna mosaic, for instance, clearly depicts Christ being baptized nude. See also Giovanni di Paoloi's 15th century painting "The Baptism of Christ."

216 . Ward, "Why Must Public Nudity" 97, and "Women in Roman Baths" 125-47; Brown 315-16. The historicity of coed nudity is supported by the writings of numerous Roman historians including Ovid, Nicarchus, Pliny the Elder, Quintilian, and Marial. See also Ableman 38; Wilkinson 99-101.

217 . "Christians Undressed" 11. Roy Bowen Ward notes that by the Fifth Century the anti-body philosophy adopted by church leaders had become so entrenched that St. Jerome considered it immoral for a Christian virgin to bathe in the nude--even if alone. The transformation away from a more natural acceptance of nudity came about as the result of the powerful influence of a few individuals. For details, see Ward, "Women in Roman Baths" 142-46; Brown 314-17; Mackenzie 24; and Renbourn 483-84.

218 . An extensive list of sources may be found in Jonathan Smith 220, footnote 12. See also pp. 222-24, 227, 235- 37; Miles, chapter 1, esp. pp. 33-34; Cunningham 49-50; Danielou 38-39; Ward, "Why Must Public Nudity" 97; B. Easton 46; and Mackey 42.

219 . Miles 33.

220 . Cyril of Jerusalem, The Mystagogical Lectures, FOC 64, 161, quoted in Miles 33; Danielou 38, 39; and Cunningham 49-50. John the Deacon, in about 500 A.D., wrote: "They are commanded to go in naked, even down to their feet, so that [they may show that] they have put off the earthly garments of mortality. The church has ordained these things for many years with watchful care, even though the old books may not reveal traces of them." (Jonathan Smith 235; Miles 34) St. Hippolytus, presbyter of Rome circa 215 A.D., said that total nudity was required. The rule ordered, "let no one go down to the water having any alien object with them," and directs women to remove even their jewelry and the combs from their hair (Cunningham 49; Ward, "Why Must Public Nudity" 97; B. Easton 46). Several paintings in the Christian catacombs in the first centuries of the common era depicted naked baptism (Miles 34; Jonathan Smith 222; Mackey 42). There are many theories as to the reason nudity was an important part of early Christian baptism. Most interpret nudity as symbolic of spiritual rebirth in the Christian faith. Margaret Miles explains that it symbolized "death to former commitments and socialization and birth to a new existence. . . . The stripping of clothing followed by nakedness . . . was a paradigm of the deconstruction of secular socialization." (Miles 36) Alternatively, but in a similar vein, Jonathan Smith writes: "Being naked and without shame [in baptism] is . . . a typological return to the state of Adam and Eve before the Fall." (Jonathan Smith 237)

221 . Cunningham 49.

222 . See Taylor, esp. 26.

223 . Renbourn 15, 507.

224 . See Ellis, vol. 1, part 1, pp. 27-32, for numerous historic accounts of casual public and family nudity in Europe. See also Taylor, esp. 22; Lindsay 6; Laver, Modesty in Dress 145; Renbourn 14. Havelock Ellis writes that three women recited poetry in the nude for Louis XI when he entered Paris in 1461, noting that nudity often played an important role in ancient festivals (Ellis, vol. 1, part 1, p. 29).

225 . Ellis, vol. 2, part 3, p. 98.

226 . Wright 41; see also numerous engravings throughout the book.

227 . Robinson, Body Packaging 50-51; Ribeiro 45-49, 55. The sumptuary laws of 1463 and 1483 prohibited anyone "under the rank of a lord . . . from wearing any gowne, jaket or cloke unless it be of sufficient length on a man standing upright to cover his privy member and buttokkes." The phrase about "standing upright" was added in the 1483 law, because men of lower rank were getting away with wearing short tunics on the grounds that they were covered when they were sitting down.

228 . Robinson, Body Packaging 62; Ribeiro 52, 68, 80-82, 175; Shields 289-91.

229 . Ribeiro 52, 82, 175. The clergy of the period condemned women to hell for exposing too much breast. In 1637, for instance, Pierre Juvernay of Paris claimed that women who showed their breasts in this lifetime would have them tortured in the next (Shields 291).

230 . Ableman 50, 68, 84. See also Lindsay 11. Aileen Ribeiro notes that by the mid 1860s, women had adopted bathing costumes, "but it was not a universal practice for men to wear bathing costumes until the Edwardian period. . . . Until that time, men could often bathe naked, although by the late 1890s a number of local authorities had begun to put up notes enjoining the wearing of drawers." (Ribeiro 134, 183)

231 . "College Nude Swims" 114-15; Stein 14.

232 . McGregor County Park ("Hippy Hollow") in Texas also has a legal nude beach, though recently it has been under attack by conservative local legislators. For a good history of its historical nude use, which is typical of other nude beaches, see Harker. See also K. Goodrich for a perspective focusing on the challenges recreation managers face in areas where nude bathing is controversial.

233 . B. Franklin 15:180. In his own words, "I rise early almost every morning, and sit in my chamber, without any clothes whatever, half an hour or an hour, according to the season, either reading or writing."

234 . Harding 121; Wagenknecht 83-84. Musing at boys bathing in a river, he wrote in his journal: "What a singular fact for an angel visitant to this earth to carry back in his note-book, that men were forbidden to expose their bodies under the severest penalties." (Thoreau 92)

235 . "Alexander Graham Bell" 10.

236 . Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 20; L. Goodrich 23-25; L. Siegel 20-21. See also Whitman's poem "Leaves of Grass." In a letter to the London Sun Bathing Society, Shaw wrote, "I am strongly in favor of getting rid of every scrap of clothing that we can dispense with. . . . I object als o to the excessive use of clothing to produce idolatry, and stimulate sexuality beyond their natural bounds. And of course I know the mischief done by making us ashamed of our bodies. . . . On all these points you have my best wishes for your success as a propagandist." (Shaw 6) Regarding the Englishman's obsession with "correct" clothing, he observed that "an Englishman thinks he is moral when he is only uncomfortable." (From Man and Superman, quoted in Ribeiro 157)

237 . Hochschild 6; Kern 22.

238 . Roosevelt 45.

239 . Matthews 31; "The Double Standard" 11; W. Martin 299.

240 . "Politicians" 6.

241 . Clift 32; Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 53.

242 . Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Recreation 37.

243 . "An ACLU Policy" 9; "Bill Clinton's Vacation" 9.

244 . "Famed Nudist" 6.

245 . North American Guide, back cover; "Celebrities" 16-17.

246 . "Bridget Fonda" 8; "The Second Movie Nudist" 97.

247 . "Gary Merrill" 8-9.

248 . "Another Celebrity" 6.

249 . "Amy Grant" 8.

250 . Dr. Seuss, The Seven Lady Godivas, first published in 1939.

251 . R. Martin 38.

252 . Russell 63. See also Braithwaite 126, 148-51, 189, 192, 335; R. Martin 39; Ableman 40. A typical example: In 1657, "Elizabeth Fletcher, then a girl of sixteen, and 'a very modest, grave young woman, yet contrary to her own will or inclination, in obedience to the Lord, went naked through the streets of that city, as a sign against that hypocritical profession they then made there [at Oxford] . . . which profession she told them the Lord would strip them of.'" (Braithwaite 158)

253 . Ableman 40.

254 . Ableman 42.

255 . Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Recreation, p. 40. See also p. 2.

256 . Moral codes regarding dress and fashion have historically been used as a means of political control, especially by the Church. Dress codes have been especially instrumental in the repression of women. For a thorough history, see Ribeiro.

257 . Ableman 33, 105. See also Robinson, Body Packaging 146.

258 . Fisher 139.

259 . Miles 29.

260 . Yancey 48.

261 . Mackenzie 21, 24.

262 . "Mainstreaming Nudity" 31.

263 . O'Brien, "Naturist Interests" 36. For an in-depth analysis of the Radical Right political movement, its tactics, and its goals, see Triggs.

264 . O'Brien, "The Naked Truth" 47; et al.

265 . See R. Martin 39; Westheimer and Lieberman 62-63.

266 . See Ward, "Women in Roman Baths" 142-47; Mackenzie 21, 24; Renbourn 483-84; and Johnson.

267 . See Walker.

268 . Bonfante, "Nudity as a Costume" 546, 548.

269 . Ableman 33-34, 37; Hall 4.

270 . Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 13.

271 . The Naturist Society closely monitors issues related to the management of nude beaches and recreation areas. An ongoing account of the successes and failures of clothing-optional recreation areas may be found in its magazine, Nude & Natural.

272 . For a detailed account of the Cape Cod beach closing, and the unsuccessful legal challenges which followed, see Kozlowski.

273 . R. Mason 19.

274 . Rudofsky, Unfashionable Human Body 70. See also Rudofsky, Are Clothes Modern? 196.

275 . "Losses on Germany's Nude Coast" 33-35.

276 . Craft 60.

277 . For interpretations of references to nudity in the Midrash and Talmud, see Poretsky.

278 . Kilmer, "Original Sin" 84.

279 . Bahr 44.

280 . Seal 86.

281 . Kass 43; Poretsky 47; Seal 87.

282 . Poretsky 46-47.

283 . Poretsky 42, 53.

284 . Kass 43. When the King James Version was printed, it was taboo to talk about subjects such as incest more explicitly. See Seal 87.

285 . See Exodus 28:6-14, 39:2-7.

286 . See Isaiah 20:4, Ezekiel 16:37, 16:39, 23:29, Hosea 2:3, Micah 1:8, 1:11, Nahum 3:5, and Revelations 3:17. See also Hebrews 4:13.

287 . Barbour 362-63.

288 . "Spirituality" 82.

289 . John Paul II 190.

290 . Miles xiv. Havelock Ellis, however, notes that in later years "the Church was passionately eager to fight against what it called 'the flesh' and thus fell into the error of confusing the subjective question of sexual desire with the objective spectacle of the naked form. 'The flesh' is evil; therefore, 'the flesh' must be hidden. And they hid it, without understanding that in so doing they had not suppressed the craving for the human form but, on the contrary, had heightened it by imparting to it the additional fascination of a forbidden mystery." (Robinson, Body Packaging
29)

291 . St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, noted in Cunningham 49.

292 . John Paul II 176, 190, 191.

293 . See especially Paul's letters to the Galatians and Colossians.

294 . Miles xii. The famous "renunciation of St. Francis" occurred around 1206, when he was about 25 years old. For a detailed analysis of this event, see Trexler, esp. 4, 42-43. See also Rudofsky, Unfashionable Human Body 27; Sisk 899; Ellis, vol. 2, part 3, p. 98; Ableman 40.

295 . Ableman 40; Ellis, vol. 2, part 3, p. 98.

296 . Carrithers 219, 222-23; LeValley, "Some Background" 37-38.

297 . For a sampling of encounters with naturism, new and old, see Baxandall, World Guide to Nude Beaches and Resorts 12-21 (1995); Patti Anne Logan (1995); Sajoel (1994); North American Guide 8-29 (1993); Mary Wells (1991); Walter Wells (1991); Jane and Michael Stern (1990); Westheimer and Lieberman 57-60 (1988); Paul Fussell 205-20 (1988); Ableman 87-100 (1982); Herbert Webb (1957); Howard Warren 165-82 (1933); Jan Gay (1932); and the ongoing "Nudist Profiles" column in the Bulletin, the journal of the American Association for Nude Recreation (AANR). See also the publications and video productions of AANR and The Naturist Society, including AANR's brochure "The Nude Experience: From a Woman's Perspective" and videos "Let Yourself Be Free" and "Welcome to Our World," and the Naturist Society's videos "Experience the Freedom" and "The Beginner's Guide to Skinny Dipping." AANR also sells an excellent feature-length film called "Educating Julie," which presents a fictional but realistic account of one individual's introduction to the naturist lifestyle. Contact AANR at 1703 N. Main St., Kissimmee, FL 34744-3396, 800-879-6833; or The Naturist Society at P.O. Box 132, Oshkosh, WI 54902, 920- 426-5009.

 

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